How To Design A Substation

How to Design a Substation
The design of Substation starts with earthing and bonding. This function is done to provide connection to earthing system through which earthing impedances and transformers neutrals are connected for the flow of maximum fault current. This system ensures that there are no mechanical or thermal damage to the equipment. It also guarantees equipotential bonding so that there are no harmful gradients created by substation. To design these substations, three types of voltages are required- Step Voltage, Mesh Voltage and Touch Voltage.
The layout of substation is very necessary, for it there should be a Security of Supply. The equipment and circuits of substation are duplicated. The cost for implementing such designs is not feasible is it is very high in price. Some methods are adopted to have a complete security of capital investment and supply. There are four types of substation design. They are:

Category No.1: To transfer the load to the alternative circuit for fault conditions and maintenance it is very important to have short outage.
Category No.2: Loss of whole substation due to maintenance or fault.
Category No.3: For fault and maintenance conditions no outage is required.
Category No.4: Due to maintenance or fault there is loss of section or circuit.

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